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Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) & Natural Killer (NK) Cell Release

Health Professionals Research Royal Victoria Hospital

stemcell-purple1-12Health Professionals Research

Study of Chlorophyll

Effect of dietary chlorophyll derivatives on mutagenesis and tumor cell growth

Chernomorsky S, Segelman A, Poretz RD. (1999). Teratog Carcinog Mutagen.19(5):313-22

Much attention in recent years has been given to the antigenotoxicity of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll, however, is known to be converted into pheophytin, pyropheophytin, and pheophorbide in processed vegetable food and following ingestion by humans. Studies were conducted on the antimutagenic and tumoricidal potencies of these compounds. All the chlorophyll derivatives tested exhibit identical antimutagenic effect towards 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), suggesting that the porphyrin nucleus may complex directly with the mutagen. It does not exclude, however, another mechanism of activity involving inactivation the enzymatic transformation of 3-MC. In contrast, the action of N’-nitro-N’-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) depends upon structural differences between the chlorophyll derivatives. It is significantly lower when the phytol-containing pheophytin and pyropheophytin are tested as to that of the phytol-lacking pheophorbide. The higher concentrations of the chlorophyll derivatives were required to reduce the mutagenicity of MNNG than needed for 3-MC. The cytotoxicity of chlorophyll derivatives against tumor cells also was evaluated. The cellular uptake and inhibition of myeloma cell multiplicity were found to be greater for pheophorbide than for pheophytin. Calculated on the amount of cell associated chlorophyll derivative, however, pheophytin was more cytostatic/cytotoxic than pheophorbide. The results presented in this report indicate that food sources that yield chlorophyll derivatives may play a significant role in cancer prevention.

An Exciting New Discovery!

Recently the first stage of an extensive research project carried out at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada produced some remarkable results. The project studies the effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on the immune and endocrine systems, as well as on general blood physiology. It was discovered that eating AFA had a profound and unique effect on Natural Killer (NK) cells. The results were recently published under the title: Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on Human Natural Killer Cells. It appears in Chapter 3.1 of the IBC Library Series, Volume 1911, Phytoceuticals: Examining the health benefit and pharmaceutical properties of natural antioxidants and phytochemicals.

NK cells have the ability to search for and recognize cells that are cancerous or have been infected by a virus, and kill them. The team of research scientists at the Royal Victoria Hospital, led by Dr. Gitte S. Jensen, discovered that eating Aphanizomenon flos-aquae triggers the movement of 40% of the circulating NK cells from the blood to the tissues where their main function is to perform immune surveillance and eliminate cancerous and virally-infected cells. Further research may prove that eating a small amount of AFA every day could assist in the prevention of cancer and viral infections. No other substance is known to trigger such a movement of NK cells in the body. This is very exciting news! We hope you will share it with everyone you know!_____________________________________________________

NOTE: These statements have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food &
Drug Administration. The information contained in this website, are not
intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease. Results may vary.



including Molecular Interventions
Posted January 1, 2008

Abstract –


Mobilization of human CD34+CD133+ and CD34+CD133%u2212 stem cells in vivo by consumption of an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae-related to modulation of CXCR4 expression by an L-selectin ligand?

This article is not included in your organization’s subscription. However, you may be able to access this article under your organization’s agreement with Elsevier.
Gitte S. Jensen, Aaron N. Hartb, Lue A.M. Zaske, Christian Drapeau, Niraj Guptad, David J. Schaeffere and J. Alex Cruickshank

a. Holger NIS, 601 13 Avenue NE, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2E 1C7

b. NIS Labs, 1437 Esplanade, Klamath Falls, OR, USA

c. StemTech Health Sciences Inc., 1011 Calle Amanecer, San Clemente, CA, USA

d. Cancer Treatment Center, Merle West Medical Center, 2610 Uhrmann Rd, Klamath Falls, OR, USA

e. Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

The coauthor C. Drapeau is Chief Science Officer for StemTech Health Sciences, which distributes the product StemEnhance, used for the in vivo part of this paper. No other authors have any commercial interest in the subject matter. Available online 29 August 2007.

The goal of this study was to evaluate effects on human stem cells in vitro and in vivo of an extract from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) enriched for a novel ligand for human CD62L (L-selectin).

Experimental approach
Ligands for CD62L provide a mechanism for stem cell mobilization in conjunction with down-regulation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor for stromal derived factor 1. Affinity immunoprecipitation was used to identify a novel ligand for CD62L from a water extract from AFA. The effects of AFA water extract on CD62L binding and CXCR4 expression was tested in vitro using human bone marrow CD34+ cells and the two progenitor cell lines, KG1a and K562. A double-blind randomized crossover study involving 12 healthy subjects evaluated the effects of consumption on stem cell mobilization in vivo.

An AFA extract rich in the CD62L ligand reduced the fucoidan-mediated externalization of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor on bone marrow CD34+ cells by 30% and the CD62L+ CD34+ cell line KG1A by 50% but did not alter the CXCR4 expression levels on the CD34 cell line K562. A transient, 18% increase in numbers of circulating CD34+ stem cells maximized 1 hour after consumption (P<.0003). When 3 noncompliant volunteers were removed from analysis, the increase in CD34+ cells was 25% (P<.0001).

AFA water extract contains a novel ligand for CD62L. It modulates CXCR4 expression on CD34+ bone marrow cells in vitro and triggers the mobilization of CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133 cells in vivo.

Keywords: L-selectin; Ligand; Human; Adult stem cell; CD34; CD133; KG1a; K562; Bone marrow; Mobilization; Blue-green algae; Cyanobacteria; Aphanizomenon; In vivo; In vitro

Abbreviations: AFA, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; PBMC, Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PMN, Polymorph-nucleated cells

Article Outline
1. Introduction
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Buffers and media
2.2. Cyanobacterial extracts
2.3. Monoclonal antibodies
2.4. Capturing of ligand using Dynabeads and chimera proteins
2.5. Electrophoresis
2.6. Human subjects
2.7. Immunostaining for L-selectin
2.8. Immunostaining for CXCR4 expression on different types of progenitor cells
2.9. Induction of CXCR4 expression on various types of stem and progenitor-type cells
2.10. Study design for in vivo testing of consumption of an LSL-rich fraction of AFA
2.11. Statistical analysis
3. Results
3.1. AFA contains a ligand for human L-selectin (CD62L)
3.2. AFA-W specifically reduces TQ1 immunostaining of L-selectin on human PMN cells
3.3. AFA-W inhibits the fucoidan-induced CXCR4 expression on CD34+ cells from bone marrow and on the KG1a CD34bright cell line but not on the CD34%u2212 cell line K562
3.4. In vivo: consumption of an AFA extract rich in AFA-LSL resulted in a transient increase of circulating CD34+ cells
4. Discussion


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